Accepted for Publication: December 9, 2014.
Published Online: February 12, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2014.197.
Study concept and design: Gogineni, Shuman, Chinn, Emanuel.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Shuman, Emanuel.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Gogineni, Gabler, Emanuel.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Gogineni, Shuman, Chinn, Emanuel.
Study supervision: Gogineni, Chinn.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Additional Contributions: Scott Halpern, MD, PhD, MBE, Steve Joffe, MD, MPH, Dan Polsky, PhD, and Kevin Volpp, MD, PhD, University of Pennsylvania, provided helpful comments on the manuscript. Laura Repcheck, MSW, Linnea Michaels, MSW, MBE, Lauren Strelec, BA, and Christina Garces, BA, provided valuable assistance with data collection and entry and received financial compensation as employees of the Department of Medical Ethics & Health Policy, University of Pennsylvania.