Accepted for Publication: January 26, 2015.
Published Online: March 19, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2015.0213.
Study concept and design: Morrissey, Mellnick, Siegel, Bhayani, Kharasch.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Morrissey, Luo.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Morrissey, Luo.
Obtained funding: Morrissey, Kharasch.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Morrissey, Mellnick, Bhayani, Kharasch.
Study supervision: Morrissey, Siegel, Bhayani, Kharasch.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Washington University in St Louis has a European patent for the use of AQP1 to diagnose kidney cancer. The authors used the Biostatistics and the Imaging and Response Assessment Cores of the Siteman Cancer Center under NCI Cancer Center Support P30 CA91842. Through Washington University in St Louis, Drs Morrissey and Kharasch have a European Patent on the use of urine AQP1 to diagnose renal cancer.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by the Barnes-Jewish Hospital Frontier Fund (7537-55) and the Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University in St Louis School of Medicine. Additional support was provided by the Bear Cub Fund of Washington University, a grant from the Barnes-Jewish Hospital Foundation as a subaward of Washington University Institute of Clinical and Translational Science UL1 TR000448, and a grant from the National Cancer Institute R01CA141521, each to Dr Morrissey, and the Department of Urology, Washington University School of Medicine.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: The authors thank Marilee Fisher, BA, Jay McQuillan, BS, Jane Blood, BS, RN, Megan Kalin, MS, CCRP, Kalin Guebert, MS, CCRP, Michael Reeves, BA, Jeanine Wade, RTR, and Ruth Holdener, RTR (computed tomography) and (magnetic resonance imaging), Washington University in St Louis, School of Medicine, for their expert help in the study. Graham Colditz, MD, DrPH, carefully reviewed the manuscript and provided thoughtful input. All had part of their salary sourced to the Frontier grant or the National Institutes of Health grant, except Dr Colditz, who reviewed the manuscript as a courtesy.