Accepted for Publication: September 16, 2015.
Correction: This article was corrected on July 28, 2016, to correct the Figure 2 vetical axis labels.
Published Online: December 10, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2015.4508.
Open Access: This article is published under JAMA Oncology’s open access model and is free to read on the day of publication.
Study concept and design: Bleicher, Sigurdson, Egleston.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Bleicher, Ruth, Sigurdson, Beck, Ross, Wong, Patel, Boraas, Chang, Topham, Egleston.
Drafting of the manuscript: Bleicher, Egleston.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Bleicher, Ruth, Sigurdson, Beck, Ross, Wong, Patel, Boraas, Chang, Topham, Egleston.
Statistical analysis: Ruth, Ross, Egleston.
Obtained funding: Bleicher, Egleston.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Bleicher, Beck, Chang, Egleston.
Study supervision: Bleicher, Sigurdson.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by United States Public Health Services grant P30 CA006927 for analysis of the data via support of our biostatistics facility; by internal American Cancer Society grant IRG-92-027-17 that supported preliminary analysis of data; and by generous private donor support from the Marlyn Fein Chapter of the Fox Chase Cancer Center Board of Associates for analysis and interpretation of the data. The collection of cancer incidence data used in this study was supported by the California Department of Public Health as part of the statewide cancer reporting program mandated by California Health and Safety Code Section 103885; the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program under contract HHSN261201000140C awarded to the Cancer Prevention Institute of California, contract HHSN261201000035C awarded to the University of Southern California, and contract HHSN261201000034C awarded to the Public Health Institute; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Program of Cancer Registries, under agreement No. U58DP003862-01 awarded to the California Department of Public Health.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimers: This study used the linked SEER-Medicare database. The interpretation and reporting of these data are the sole responsibility of the authors. The ideas and opinions expressed herein are those of the author(s) and endorsement by the State of California Department of Public Health, the National Cancer Institute, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or their contractors and subcontractors is not intended nor should be inferred. The American College of Surgeons and the Commission on Cancer have not verified and are not responsible for the analytic or statistical methodology used in this study nor for the conclusions drawn from these data by the investigators.
Previous Presentation: This article was presented in part at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology; June 1, 2015; Chicago, Illinois.
Additional Information: The NCDB is a joint project of the Commission on Cancer of the American College of Surgeons and the American Cancer Society. The data used in the study are derived from a deidentified NCDB file.
Additional Contributions: The authors acknowledge the efforts of the National Cancer Institute Healthcare Delivery Research Program; the Office of Research, Development and Information, CMS; Information Management Services (IMS) Inc (which provides access to and distributes the SEER-Medicare dataset); and the NCI Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program tumor registries in the creation of the SEER-Medicare database. The authors acknowledge the efforts of the National Cancer Institute; the Office of Research, Development and Information, CMS; Information Management Services (IMS) Inc; and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program tumor registries in the creation of the SEER-Medicare database.